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By: 布丽姬特·麦克德莫特,CFP®

早在2015年, new social security rules were signed into law that closed two very lucrative loopholes for a majority of Americans – (1) File & 暂停及(2)受限制申请.  新法律将资格与出生日期挂钩, restricting the use of both strategies exclusively to older individuals.  实际截止日期如下:

As you can see, if you were born on or after January 2nd, 1954, you are not able to file & 暂停,也没有资格提交受限申请.  然而, 如果你结婚了, 或者结婚十多年后离婚, there are still strategies to consider when applying for retirement benefits.

作为一个个体, you are eligible for social security retirement benefits once you accumulate 40 “social security credits.”  You can earn up to four credits each year, one credit per $1,360 (2019) of earned income.  The amount of earned income you need per credit changes each year to adjust for inflation.  To receive all four credits for 2019, you would have to earn at least $5,440.  十年后收入超过了上限, 你将获得全部40个学分, 获得社会保障退休福利的资格.

当你申请福利时, 假设你已经获得了所有的40个学分, the social security administration will pull your earnings record and average your 35 highest-earning years, 受通货膨胀影响.  (If you have not worked a full 35 years, zeros will be used to calculate the average).  They will then use that average to determine your Primary Insurance Amount (PIA), the amount you will receive if you choose to begin benefits at your Full Retirement Age (FRA).

You can apply for retirement benefits as early as age 62 and as late as age 70.  然而, 如果你在联邦铁路评估之前就开始享受福利, the benefit you receive will be permanently reduced based on the number of months before your FRA you received benefits.  而延迟福利则恰恰相反.  你每推迟一年的联邦铁路评估, your benefit will be permanently increased by 8% up until you turn 70.  例如, if you reach your FRA at age 66 but you delay benefits until age 70, 当你申请时,你将获得联邦铁路局福利的132%.  Your Full Retirement Age is based on your year of birth as shown in the table below.

如果你未婚, 而且从未结过婚, you will apply for benefits based on your own earnings record (your “Retirement Benefit”).  You can delay your benefit to take advantage of the 8% per year growth, 但除此之外,没有多少策略可以考虑.

然而, 如果你目前已婚, 或者在结婚10年以上后离婚, you may be eligible to receive benefits based on your spouse’s or ex-spouse’s earnings record (your “Spousal Benefit”).  如果你根据配偶在联邦铁路管理局的记录申请福利, you should receive 50% of the benefit your spouse would be eligible to receive at his/her FRA, 无论你的配偶开始享受福利的年龄.  例如, 如果你有资格获得1美元,000 based on your earnings record at your FRA and your spouse is eligible to receive $3,根据他/她在FRA的记录,000, 当你到达你的联邦铁路, 你可以申请1美元的配偶福利,500, 3美元的50%,你的配偶有资格在他/她的FRA领取000.

这里有一个警告, though; in order to apply for Spousal Benefits, 你的配偶必须已经收到了他们的退休福利.  If you apply for your benefit before your spouse begins his/her own benefit, 你将根据自己的记录获得福利.  If, 当你的配偶申请他/她自己的利益时, the benefit you could be receiving based on your spouse’s record (50% of his/her FRA amount) is greater than the amount you are currently receiving, 您将自动升级到较高的金额.  If you began taking your benefit early and later switch to your spousal benefit, both your own benefit and your spousal benefit will be reduced because you started your benefit before your FRA.

在你的配偶权益得到提升之后, 除了每年的生活费用增加, your benefit will most likely stay constant until your spouse passes away.  在那个时候, if the benefit they were receiving is greater than the benefit you are currently receiving, 你会开始收到他们以前收到的钱.  In other words, your benefit amount would be replaced by their benefit amount, if greater.

When we run social security analyses for our clients who are too young to file & 暂停或提交受限制的应用程序, the results typically favor the husband delaying his benefit until age 70 and the wife beginning benefits at her FRA.  This recommendation most frequently comes into play in instances when the husband made substantially more money over the marriage.

例如, Joe and Cathy (both born in 1960) reach FRA when they turn 67 in 2027.  根据凯西的收入记录, 她有资格获得12美元,如果她在联邦铁路局申请退休福利的话.  乔有资格获得36,000美元,如果他在他的联邦铁路局.  When Cathy turns 67, she files on her own earnings record and begins receiving $12,000 per year.  乔决定等到70岁, at which point his benefit has grown by 24% (8% for each of the 3 years he delayed after his FRA) to $44,640.  当乔文件, 他将得到44美元,640 per year and Cathy will automatically be stepped up to her spousal benefit of $18,000, 乔的联邦铁路局福利的50%, 而不是乔70岁时得到的福利.  乔去世后, 凯茜会再次被自动提拔, 这次是44美元,640, 乔死时得到的抚恤金.  下图显示了这个场景:

也就是说,每个人的情况都是不同的.  There are many factors that play into a social security benefit claiming strategy.  I urge you to talk through your options with the social security administration or a financial planner before making an election.  在九游会游戏官网的办公室, we run a social security optimization analysis to help our clients pick the strategy that works best with their overall financial plan.  You’ve been paying into the system for years; take the time to ensure you don’t leave your hard-earned money on the table.

布里奇特·麦克德莫特(Bridget McDermott)是北卡罗来纳州夏洛特市的一名理财规划师. 点击这里 来更多地了解布丽奇特.

Nothing contained herein constitutes financial, legal, tax, or other advice. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of 卡罗莱纳州投资咨询. The information published herein is provided for informational purposes only, 这并不构成要约, solicitation or recommendation to sell or an offer to buy securities, 投资产品或投资咨询服务. All information, views, opinions and estimates are subject to change or correction without notice. The appropriateness of an investment or strategy will depend on an investor’s circumstances and objectives. These opinions may not fit to your financial status, risk and return preferences. 过去的表现并不代表未来的回报.

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